ANA SAYFA


THE FUNGI KINGDOM
 
 
 
*The Fungi Kingdom:
 
→Fungi are eukaryotic and mostly multicellular organisms. (except unicellular yeasts)
 
→They do not have roots, leaves, vascular tissues and chloroplasts.
 
→They have root-like structure which is called rhizoid.
 
→They have cell wall which made of chitin. (in some of them made of cellulose)
 
 
 
 
 
→They have multiple-nuclei usually two.
 
→They store excess glucose as glycogen.
 
→Their cells sequencing form fibrious structure which is called hypha.
 
 
 
 
Network of hyphae form the structure of mycelium.
 
→Some of species have flagellated spores which are called zoospores.
 
 
 
 
The nutrition of fungi:
 
→Fungi are heterotrophic organisms.
 
→They cannot produce their own food.
 
 
→The nutrition of fungi are divided into three groups: saprophytic, parasitic and mutualistic.
 
 
 
Saprophytic fungi feed on dead organisms.
 
Parasitic fungi are harmful and causes diseases.
 
Mutualistic fungi live with an organism and both of them benefit from the relationship.
 
 
Examples: Lichen, mycorrhiza
 
 
 
 
The reproduction of fungi:
 
→The reproduction of fungi divided into two groups: asexually and sexually.
 
→They reproduce asexually by sporesbudding and fragmentation of the hyphae.
 
→They reproduce sexually by mating of hyphae filaments.
 
 
 
 
The classification of fungi:
 
→The fungi are divided into five groups: Chytridiomycota, zygomycota, glomeromycota, ascomycota and
    basidiomycota.
 
 
 
 
Chytridiomycota (chytrids):
 
→They are unique among fungi in having flagellated spores, which called zoospores.
 
 
 
Zygomycota (common molds):
 
Examples: Bread and fruits molds
 
 
 
Glomeromyocota:
 
→Some of them form mycorrhizal associations with plants.
 
 
 
Ascomycota (sac fungi):
 
Examples: Yeasts, truffles, morels
 
 
 
→Some of species form mycorrhizal associations with plants and some of species form lichens with algae
    or cyanobacteria.
 
→Some of species are edible. (Morchella esculenta)
 
→Some of species uses to make antibiotic. (Penicillium)
 
 
 
 
Basidiomycota (club fungi):
 
Examples: Mushrooms, smuts, puffballs, brackets
 
 
Some of species are edible and some of species are poisonous.
 
→Some of species form lichens with algae or cyanobacteria.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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