ANA SAYFA


CHEMIOSMOTIC HYPOTHESIS
 
 
 
*Chemiosmotic hypothesis:
 
→Chemiosmotic hypothesis proposed by Peter Mitchell in 1961.
 
→This hypothesis explains, how ATP is generated at the electron transport system (ETS) of mitochondria
    and chloroplast.
 
 
 
 
**Chemiosmotic hypothesis within the mitochondria:
 
 
 
 
 
→At the inner membrane of mitochondria; NADH-Q reductase, cytochrome reductase and cytochrome oxidase
    pump the protons (H+) from mitochondrial matrix into the intermembrane space.
 
→This causes to charge, the outer side of inner membrane positively and conversely the inner side negatively.
 
→Then, the ATP synthase pumps the protons back into the matrix.
 
→While the protons flow back into the matrix, ATP synthase uses the gradient energy of protons to phosphorylate
    ADP, making ATP.
 
 
 
 
 
**Chemiosmotic hypothesis within the chloroplast:
 
 
 
 
 
→At the thylakoid membrane of chloroplast; the cytochrome pumps the protons (H+) from the stroma into
    the thylakoid space.
 
→At the same time, the splitting of water occurs at the thylakoid space.
 
→These cause to charge, the inner side of thylakoid membrane positively and conversely the outer side
    negatively.
 
→Then, the ATP synthase pumps the protons back into the stroma.
 
→While the protons flow back into the stroma, ATP synthase uses the gradient energy of protons to phosphorylate 
    ADP, making ATP.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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